• A “waste-valorization” approach was developed to transform recalcitrant hydrolysis lignin (HL) from secondgeneration bioethanol production into multifunctional bio-based products. The hydrolysis lignin (HL) was extracted with aqueous acetone, yielding two fractions enriched in lignin and cellulose, respectively. The soluble hydrolysis lignin (SHL) was converted into anionic and cationic colloidal lignin particles (CLPs and c-CLPs). The insoluble cellulose-rich fraction was transformed into lignocellulosic nanofibrils that were further combined with CLPs or c-CLPs to obtain nanocomposite films with tailored mechanical properties, oxygen permeability antioxidant properties. To enable prospective applications of lignin in nanocomposite films and beyond, CLPs and c-CLPs were also produced from a soda lignin (SL) and the influence of the lignin type on the particle size and ecotoxicity was evaluated. Finally, the carbon footprint of the entire process from hydrolysis lignin to films was assessed and an integration to industrial scale was considered to reduce the energy consumption. While most previous work utilizes purified lignin and pristine and often purified cellulose fibers to produce nanomaterials, this work provides a proof of concept for utilizing the recalcitrant lignin-rich side stream of the bioethanol process as raw material for functional nanomaterials and renewable composites.

  • Guillaume N. Rivière , Muhammad Farooq, Monika Österberg, MikaH. Sipponena Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland

    Florian Pion , Stéphanie Baumberger Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France

    Hanna Koivula Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Helsinki, University of Helsinki, Finland

    Thangavelu Jayabalan , Pascal Pandard , Guy Marlair Ineris, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP 2, Verneuil en Halatte, France

    Xun Liao Quantis, EPFL Innovation Park Bât. D, Lausanne, Switzerland;
    Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL Valais Wallis, Rue de l’ Industrie 17,Sion, Switzerland



    Copyright:© 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://

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