• Large-scale applications of rechargeable batteries consume nonrenewable resources and
    produce massive amounts of end-of-life wastes, which raise sustainability concerns in terms
    of manufacturing, environmental, and ecological costs. Therefore, the recyclability and sustainability
    of a battery should be considered at the design stage by using naturally abundant
    resources and recyclable battery technology. Herein, we design a fully recyclable rechargeable
    sodium ion battery with bipolar electrode structure using Na3V2(PO4)3 as an electrode
    material and aluminum foil as the shared current collector. Such a design allows exceptional
    sodium ion battery performance in terms of high-power correspondence and long-term
    stability and enables the recycling of ∼100% Na3V2(PO4)3 and ∼99.1% elemental aluminum
    without the release of toxic wastes, resulting in a solid-component recycling efficiency of
    >98.0%. The successful incorporation of sustainability into battery design suggests that
    closed-loop recycling and the reutilization

  • School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006, Guangzhou, China



    Copyright: This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

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