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  • Although deployments of grid-scale stationary lithium ion battery energy storage systems are accelerating, the environmental impacts of this new infrastructure class are not well studied. To date, a small literature of environmental life cycle assessments (LCAs) and related studies has examined associated environmental impacts, but they rely on a variety of methods and system boundaries rather than a consistent approach. The large LCA literature of transportation applications of LIB contains selected life-cycle inventory data relevant for stationary ESSs, but does not incorporate characteristics unique to stationary systems, such as balance of system materials; operational profiles; and perhaps even different end-of-life (EOL) phase needs. This critical literature review surveys the existing studies on grid-scale stationary LIB ESS, and highlights research gaps concerning comprehensive environmental impacts. Further analysis specific to grid-connected LIB systems – encompassing use phase (battery
    operation) and EOL, in addition to production phase – is required for a robust assessment of environmental impacts of grid-connected energy storage in LIB systems. For example, thus far studies that systematically evaluate the consequential impact of storage system operation have been focused on energy arbitrage and frequency regulation applications. Future work should consider the impact of ESS providing other grid services as well. Although EOL costs and impacts for stationary LIB ESSs are an important consideration for prospective asset owners and key users of grid-scale ESS (such as electric utility companies and project developers), they are not yet addressed in the literature

  • Matthew A. Pellowa Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304, United States of America

    Hanjiro Ambrose EcoShift Consulting, Santa Cruz, CA 95065, United States of America; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, United States of America

    Dustin Mulvaney EcoShift Consulting, Santa Cruz, CA 95065, United States of America

    Rick Betita EcoShift Consulting, Santa Cruz, CA 95065, United States of America; Department of Environmental Studies, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192, United States of America

    Stephanie Shawa Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304, United States of America

    Source:https://bit.ly/3hDrJpu

    Courtesy:https://www.sciencedirect.com

    Copyright:© 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://
    creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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