• Nowadays, Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in advanced technological devices and Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, due to their high energy density for weight, reduced memory effect and significant number of supported charging/discharging cycles. As a consequence, the production and the use of Lithium-ion batteries will continuously increase in the near future, focusing the global attention on their End-of-Life management. Unfortunately, wasted Lithium-ion batteries treatments are still under development, far from the optimization of recycling processes and technologies, and currently recycling represents the only alternative for the social, economic and environmental sustainability of this market, able to minimize toxicity of End-of-Life products, to create a monetary gain and to lead to the independence from foreign resources or critical materials. This paper analyses the current alternatives for the recycling of Lithium-ion batteries, specifically focusing on available procedures for batteries securing and discharging, mechanical pre-treatments and materials recovery processes (i.e. pyro- and hydrometallurgical), and it highlights the pros and cons of treatments in terms of energy consumption, recovery efficiency and safety issues. Target metals (e.g. Cobalt, Nickel and Lithium) are listed and prioritized, and the economic advantage deriving by the material recovery is outlined. An in-depth literature review was conducted, analysing the existing industrial processes, to show the on-going technological solutions proposed by research projects and industrial developments, comparing best results and open issues and criticalities.

  • Elena Mossali STIIMA CNR, Institute of Intelligent Industrial Technologies and Systems for Advanced Manufacturing – National Research Council, Via Alfonso Corti,Milan, Italy

    Nicoletta Picone, Marcello Colledani Cobat, Via Vicenza, Roma, Italy

    Luca Gentilini Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 1, Milan, Italy

    Olga Rodrìguez National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, Madrid, Spain

    Juan Manuel P�erez Envirobat Espa~na, Avda. de Lyon, Azuqueca de Henares, Guadalajara, Spain



    Copyright:/© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

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