• Apples are among the most consumed fruits world-wide. They represent a source of
    direct human exposure to bacterial communities, which is less studied. We analyzed
    the apple microbiome to detect differences between tissues and the impact of organic
    and conventional management by a combined approach of 16S rRNA gene amplicon
    analysis and qPCR, and visualization using fluorescence in situ hybridization and
    confocal laser scanning microscopy (FISH-CLSM). Each apple fruit harbors different
    tissues (stem, peel, fruit pulp, seeds, and calyx), which were colonized by distinct
    bacterial communities. Interestingly, fruit pulp and seeds were bacterial hot spots,
    while the peel was less colonized. In all, approximately 108 16S rRNA bacterial gene
    copy numbers were determined in each g apple. Abundances were not influenced by
    the management practice but we found a strong reduction in bacterial diversity and
    evenness in conventionally managed apples. In addition, despite the similar structure in
    general dominated by Proteobacteria (80%), Bacteroidetes (9%), Actinobacteria (5%),
    and Firmicutes (3%), significant shifts of almost 40% of bacterial genera and orders
    were monitored. Among them, especially bacterial signatures known for health-affecting
    potential were found to be enhanced in conventionally managed apples. Our results
    suggest that we consume about 100 million bacterial cells with one apple. Although
    this amount was the same, the bacterial composition was significantly different in
    conventionally and organically produced apples.

  • Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria



    Copyright: published: 24 July 2019 doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01629. Copyright © 2019

View / Download research paper

©️2022 Deus Labs Ltd | All Rights Reserved

Privacy Policy

Log in with your credentials


Forgot your details?

Create Account