• Direct recycling of lithium-ion is a promising method for manufacturing sustainability. It is more efficient than classical methods because it recovers the functional cathode particle without decomposition into substituent elements or dissolution and precipitation of the whole particle. This case study of cathode-healing™ applied to a battery recall demonstrates an industrial model for recycling of lithium-ion, be it consumer electronic or electric vehicle (EV) batteries. The comprehensive process includes extraction of electrolyte with carbon dioxide, industrial shredding, electrode harvesting, froth flotation, cathode-healing™ and finally, building new cells with recycled cathode and anode. The final products demonstrated useful capability in the first full cells made from
    direct recycled cathodes and anodes from an industrial source. The lessons learned on recycling the prototypical chemistry are preliminarily applied to EV relevant chemistries.

  • Steve Sloop, Lauren Crandon , Kara Koetje , Marshall Allena,OnTo Technology LLC, 63221 Service Road Suite F, Bend, OR 97703, United States

    Lori Reed , VR Analytical, 63020 NE Lower Meadow Drive, Suite 3, Bend, United States

    Linda Gaines Transportation Systems Analyst, Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, South Cass Avenue, United States

    Weekit Sirisaksoontorn Department of Chemistry and Centre of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

    Michael Lerner Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, 153 Gilbert Hall, Corvallis, United States



    Copyright:© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://

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